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With titles authored by diplomats, first responders, economists, journalists, civil servants, military leaders and combatants, legal experts, psychologists, and other knowledgeable specialists, these books offer in-depth reflections, thorough analysis, and international perspectives that are unavailable in mass media.

The Middle East's cold war, explained

These titles represent an invaluable resource for students and researchers as well as anyone who seeks a deeper understanding of the complex issues that affect our lives and future. Features Provides reliable, comprehensive information on all matters relating to security that is ideal for students, teachers, researchers, and professionals Offers insightful commentaries written by a diverse group of scholars and experts who provide interdisciplinary treatments of newsworthy events and important historical occurrences Author Info Fred H.

Highly recommended" — Choice Look Inside. How will India respond to pressure from China in their competition for resources and financial superiority? What will India seek from the United States and other major players in the international system? Despite the contentious relationship, the two countries have the potential to overcome their differences in favor of mutual interests, including counternarcotics, economic development, and Venezuela's burgeoning position as one of the top oil producing regions in the world.

Pakistan has also suffered a history of disputes with India over the last 50 years. As a country situated in an extremely volatile geographic location and armed with nuclear weaponry, Pakistan's effect on global security should not be taken lightly.

Together, the independent nations of Central Asia—former Soviet republics Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, plus Afghanistan—comprise one of the most important, least understood regions of the world. Lobban, Jr. African Foreign Policy and Johnston Author A History of International Law and the Use Pokalova Author Human Rights, Human Security, Springer Author Kim Cragin Author Sara A.

Daly Author Hearn Author Khan Author Author Rugh Author How Globalization Spurs Moghaddam Author Kastner Editor Gentry Author Iraq and the Challenge of Mockaitis Author The mining continued until , though smuggling became a widespread activity along the border. In addition to the Hatay and smuggling issues, disagreement over the distribution of the downflow of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers strained bilateral relations. Syria's concern grew as Turkey built dams Keban, Karakaya and Ataturk on the Euphrates in the s, s and s.

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Syria, for its part, was suspicious of Turkey's close links with Muslim Brotherhood leaders who had escaped from Syria in the s. Syria demanded that a treaty be signed with respect to the sharing of the waters of the Euphrates. Consequently, through a protocol, Turkey agreed to release cubic meters of water per second to Syria. The two sides also signed a security protocol, with the objectives of preventing terrorist operations within their borders and extraditing terrorist suspects.

Nevertheless, Turkey and Syria were on the U.

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The antagonism between Turkey and Syria had implications for each state's relationship with other countries in the region. During the s, Syria developed formidable ties with Turkey's rivals in the region, such as Greece, Iran and Armenia. In that same year, the two countries also agreed to cooperate on intelligence gathering and counterterrorism.


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In , Turkey increased its pressure on Syria by threatening to intervene militarily if it continued to provide support to the PKK. Accordingly, it stationed 10, troops along the border.

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Syrian Armed Forces

In order to ease the tension, Egyptian and Jordanian authorities played a mediating role. Upon his return to Turkey, Sezer stressed both countries' willingness to make efforts to improve their relations. Baskin Oran, The U.


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  7. After Saddam Hussein was toppled, Turkey and Syria became concerned about the creation of an independent Kurdish state in northern Iraq. In order to prevent PKK activities, Turkey — which had planted landmines on more than half of the border in the s — installed approximately 20, more.

    Global Security Watch—Syria - Fred H. Lawson - Google книги

    That same year, the HLSCC met, first at the ministerial level and later at the prime ministerial level. At a subsequent meeting that year, 50 agreements and memorandums of understanding were signed in the areas of politics, security, water, trade, culture, health, transportation and the environment. Turkey implemented visa restrictions towards Syrian citizens except asylum seekers in Turkey imposed sanctions on Syria, froze its business assets, and cut off its relationship with the Syrian Central Bank.

    The two states came to the brink of war in after a Turkish jet, flying over the border, was shot down by Syrian security forces. After the border town of Akcakale was shelled from the Syrian side, Turkey fired at military targets in northern Syria. After the Syrian conflict became a war, millions of refugees sought shelter in Turkey or transited through it to reach Europe.

    Calling the Syrians brothers, Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu stated that closing the border was not an option. At the beginning, Syrian border authorities started to shoot civilians trying to escape.

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    Soon afterwards, Turkey started to advocate for the creation of a buffer zone in Syria in order to ease the humanitarian disaster and stem the flow of refugees. The new power vacuum in Syria created favorable conditions for jihadist organizations. Julide Karakoc Palgrave Macmillan, : Before the war, they made up 10 percent of Syria's population of 23 million, mostly concentrated in the northeast along the Turkish border and in big cities such as Aleppo and Damascus. Interestingly, prior to , Syria was actively involved in Turkey's Kurdish question — while, at the same time, harboring a significant number of Kurds without citizenship status.